How Are Solar Panels Made? Parts of a Solar Panel

There is no doubt that solar panels have managed to enter into this mainstream world.

They are getting immense attention from the Earth planet. People are using them for residential and commercial sake.

Furthermore, they are marked as the cheapest and low-cost energy source.

Here on this post, we are going to tell you how solar panels are made. Moreover, you will get this information about what important parts and elements constitute them.

A large number of people are pondering and still thinking on this notion that how come solar panels are so much inexpensive and how they work so efficiently.

Even more, these solar panels give green energy.

It is observed that one can have solar panels consist of monocrystalline nature or they can have polycrystalline panels or they are composed of thin films.

This thin film is usually and generally made of amorphous silicon. Let us have a look at the other details and see how solar panels are manufactured:

Basic Composition and Construction of Solar Panels:

Construction of Solar Panels

Most importantly, solar panels are injected with a few of the important key and main components.

You will see the presence of metal, silicon, and also glass in them.

If you are planning to get Standard panels, then note down that they can be made from monocrystalline silicon or at times, they are made of polycrystalline silicon.

The Manufacturing Process of Solar Panels:

One should understand that solar photovoltaics are made and manufactured with the help of a number of parts. The crucial and essential part that is used in them, it is these silicon cells.

In addition, Silicon is a nonmetal. It comes with conductive properties.

Manufacturing Process of Solar Panels

It has the ability and potential to convert sunlight energy right into electricity.

You are going to see that as soon as the sunlight interacts and makes a connection n with a silicon cell, then it allow these electrons to be set into regular and constant motion.

Besides, this motion initiates and starts the flow of electricity.

This whole process is called the name of “photovoltaic effect.” Silicon cells alone are not enough to power your home.

If you want to provide electricity to your home with this solar energy medium, then make sure that your pair and connect silicon cells with a metal casing as well as wiring.

In this way, the solar cell’s electrons are allowed and permitted to escape and supply a useful amount of power.

It is indifferent and varied cell structures that silicon is available for the manufacturers.

You can prefer to go with the single-cell (monocrystalline) panel or have a polycrystalline form or one can go for amorphous forms.

This amorphous form is one of the most common forms that is associated and linked with thin-film solar panels. 

How Monocrystalline Solar Panels are Made?Monocrystalline Solar Panels

First of all, we are going to discuss the manufacturing process of monocrystalline solar panels.

Keep in mind that they are produced and made by using one large silicon block.

It is in the silicon wafer formats that their manufacturing and making process is accomplished.

This whole process starts with the cutting of individual wafers of silicon. It is these cut-down parts that will be later on affixed right onto a solar panel.

It is seen that mono-crystalline silicon cells are comparatively more durable and more efficient than that of polycrystalline solar cells and amorphous solar cells.

We are claiming about this just because the making and production phase of individual monocrystalline wafers is much and extremely labor-intensive. These solar panels are expensive to make and accompanied by a distinct black aesthetic.

How Polycrystalline Solar Panels are Made?

Polycrystalline Solar Panels

Now, you want to know how polycrystalline solar panels are made, here is an explanation for you.

These solar cells are also termed and named silicon cells. But there is an exception associated and linked with them. They are not formed and made in a large block.

Moreover, they are not cut down into wires. Instead, you will see that these solar panels are made by passing a large number of silicon crystals collectively through the melting process.

These silicone molecules are then properly and wholly melted.

Furthermore, they are re-fused and re-connected together to give them a panel shape. Regarding their efficiency, these polycrystalline cells are not much efficient in their operations.

They are budget-friendly. They are injected with a blueish hue.

How Amorphous Silicon Solar Panels are Made?Amorphous Silicon Solar Panels

Lastly, we have these amorphous silicon solar panels. These silicon cells manage to create and make a flexible looking solar panel.

They are made of materials that are generally used in the making of film solar panels. Remember that amorphous silicon cells remain to stay non-crystalline.

They are linked and attached to a substrate kind of glass or plastic or metal. In addition, they are lean and tend to stay bendable. They are a better option for you instead of using and having a standard solar panel.

They offer versatility. But they are very inefficient. So, it is better to prefer and go for mono or polycrystalline cells.

When a manufacturer is done with the making of an amorphous solar panel, then he or she finish and complete this process by linking and connecting all of the electrical systems.

The manufacture further adds on anti-reflective kind of coating on the solar cells. Finally, the maker house and cage this whole system right in some metal casing or in a glass casing.

Important Parts of a Solar Panel:Important Parts of a Solar Panel

Likewise, we have this discussion that which is those important and essential materials that make up a solar panel.

In the same way, you need to have a clear idea that what important parts are injected and embossed in solar panels.

The materials used in this product are just one part and a section of a solar panel. And the parts that make this whole product, they matter a lot as well.

Most importantly, you may have seen that in the solar panel manufacturer and making process, there is an induction of six different components.

Starting with, a solar panel consists of silicon solar cells, metal frame. This metal frame is commonly made of aluminum.

Then we have a glass sheet for the purpose of the casing. You will need a Standard 12V Wire, Bus wire, and also Plexiglas.

Other Subparts of a Solar Panel!

Taking an example of a standard solar panel, in this case, it is also included and installed with a glass casing. This glass casing is present and located at the front side of the solar panel.

This casing main job and function is to add and bring durability.

It gives ultimate protection to the panel. Besides, it is under this zone of glass exterior that this standard solar panel is infused with a casing for the sake and purpose of insulation. This exterior has a protective back sheet as well.

These solar panels consist of a back sheet to limit the amount of heat dissipation as well as humidity taking place inside the panel. High-end solar panels, they show the perfect and ideal process of heat insulation.

This insulation process is important and critical because, with the increase in temperature, you will see a decrease in efficiency in your solar panel works. Beyond, the user will experience low output results.

It is recommended to solar panel manufacturers that they should be going extra lengths and need to make extra efforts to ensure that sunlight is being captured along with this assurance that technology does not get over burned or overheated.

Steps In the Making of Solar Panels:Making of Solar Panels

Step #1:

The very first process is about the collection of raw materials. You need to have sand. As we know that an extensive number of solar panels, they are made by only using silicon. Furthermore, this is the main and basic component that is incorporated.

Silicon is used in natural beach sand. Moreover, it is abundantly available. Most of you may know that it is the second most available and abundant element so far on Earth.

To convert sand into silicon, it needs heavy investment. This is a high-cost process if you are planning to convert sand right into some high-grade silicon.

Even more, this is an energy-intensive and labor-intensive process. It is seen that High-purity silicon is made and produced with the help of quartz sand.

This process is carried out in an arc furnace at the very extreme, intense, and high-temperature range.

Step #2:

The next step and process are to ingot. As soon as you are done with the collection of sand and you gathered enough amount of silicon, the next phase is the melting phase.

In addition, this silicon is collected in the form and version of solid rocks. It is high and extreme temperature settings that hundred number of silicon rocks are melted together.

This melting process allows these silicon rocks to form and get into ingots. In other words, they get into the shape of a cylinder. Manufacturers always give their level best to achieve and acquire the cylinder shape. For the reason that they make use of a steel and cylindrical kind of furnace.

You have to remain very much attentive during this job and the process of melting. Make sure that all of the atoms are perfectly connected, linked and aligned together in the desired structure.

Make it possible to give a desired and expected orientation to your silicon rocks. You can even add Boron in this manufacturing process of solar panels.

This addition is going to give the silicone that specific and respective positive electrical polarity. It is from a single crystal of silicon that monocrystalline cells are made. They have higher efficiency and their price is high as well.

Regarding, Polysilicone cells, they are specifically and crafted by melting several and a bunch of silicon crystals together. They give a shattered glass look.

The minute the ingot is cooled down properly, then the next step of grinding and polishing is going to be performed.

Step #3:Solar Panel

The third step is on wafers. It is in this step that you will see that the silicon ingot is going to sliced and cut into thin kind of disks.

That we call with the name of wafers. For accurate and precise cutting, one can use a wire saw for this job.

The approximate and estimated thinness of the wafer has to match with the thinness of a piece of paper. On the other hand, pure silicon tends to stay shiny. It has an absolute potential to reflect the sunlight.

So, if you want to reduce and bring down the amount of sunlight that is lost during this process, what you can do it to use an anti-reflective kind of coating. This coating is generally placed and infused on the silicon wafer.

Step #4:

Moving to the fourth step! This step is about converting wafers into solar cells.

We know that solar cells possess and encompass a huge potential for converting and transforming solar power right into electricity. The manufacturers need to treat every single wafer.

And then the addition of metal conductors is carried out on each and every single surface of wafers. Most noteworthy, these metal conductors give and provide these wafers with a grid-like kind of matrix.

This whole process will ensure and absolutely guarantee the conversion process of solar energy into electricity mode.

As wafers have a coating on them, so this ingredient and addition will be able to facilitate and improve the process of absorption of sunlight and will not at all reflecting it.

Manufacturers make use of an oven-like chamber. They diffuse phosphorous in it in the form of a thin layer.

This thin layer is spread over the wafer’s surface. By doing so, the wafer surface will get charged and induced with a negative electrical orientation.

Besides, the positive-negative junction and connection happen because of the combination of boron and phosphorous. Hence, this is a critical and important combination for the proper functioning and running of a PV cell.

Step #5:Solar Panels

In the fifth step, solar cells will be soldered collectively and on together notes. Metal conductors link and connect the solar cells with each other.

Note down that solar panels are made and composed of solar cells. They are integrated and incorporated together in the form of a matric.

If you go to the market, then you will see that you can have 48 cell panels. They are suitable and ideal for residential-scale roofs.

If you are preferring to go for 60-cell panels, then these panels are appropriate for standard roof sizes. Moreover, for 72-cell panels, they are used and installed for some large scale installation jobs.

Once the solar cells are put and fused together, then a thin layer of dimension and measurement 6 to 7 nm made of glass will be added on the front side portion of solar cells.

This layer will be facing the sun. Furthermore, this backsheet is made and constructed from a polymer-based material.

This is a highly durable material for this specific job. This back sheet job is to prevent and stop soil and water from getting entered into the solar panel. It will make sure that no other unnecessary materials reside or attack your solar panel.

In this same step, the addition and placement of junction box will be carried out. This junction box job and duty are to enable and activate connections right inside the module.

This junction box shows its visibility and presence as soon as the whole frame will be put together and assembled.

Even more, the presence of frame ensure and absolutely guarantee the highest protection against harsh weather times. With the help of this frame, you can mount and install your solar panel in any manner you want to. For an assembly job, you can take help of the EVA glue.

That we call with the name of ethylene-vinyl acetate. It is the kind of glue that binds and attaches every single thing. This glue will not damage your solar cells.

Step #6:

The last step is all about testing the modules. Once your solar panel module is set and ready then the next step will be to test it.

This way, you can confidently ensure that your solar cells will be able to perform according to your expectations and demands.

For your reference point, do always keep in mind the standard test conditions. What you can do is to put and keep your solar panel in the specific and particular flash tester. Do this testing in a manufacturing facility.

Whatever results you will get from this testing, it will tell you about the overall power output and efficiency of your solar panel.

In addition, this phase of testing gives you details regarding voltage and current and temperature tolerance range of your solar panel.

Apart from following these standard test conditions, it is important for all manufacturers to make use of nominal operating cell temperature range. When your designed product passes this testing phase, then you can further clean and inspect it.

Why Use Solar Panels?Solar Panels

Solar panels let you save a hundred and thousands of dollars. If you have decided to add solar panels in your home, then that is a great idea.

Through this decision, you will be able to make the maximum number of monthly savings.

They increase your home value. If your home has solar panels in it and you are planning to sell it, then its value will be higher as compared to those homes that do not have solar panels. This product increase and boost your home`s attractiveness.

Going solar, it means you are opting for a secure investment. If you have got exhausted because of the utility companies and their notorious attitude regarding fluctuating and unreliable increases in electricity prices, then what you can do is to follow this upward trend. Simply install solar panels in your home and do the simple math.

You will get guaranteed performance upon using these solar panels. It is observed that premium and high-end solar panels, are usually and generally included with a 20 to 25-year warranty time.

This is the performance guarantee trait that is given by top-end and high-quality solar panels.

It is according to the industry standard that solar panels need to guarantee and ensure 80% performance right after 25 years. In addition, the real lifespan of excellent quality solar panels, it is comparatively much longer.

The decision of using solar panels. it is going to save your environment. It is now commonly seen that majority and an extensive number of homeowners, they prefer to choose and go for installing solar panels because this decision does make good and great sense.

Besides, from a financial point of view, this is the best decision that you can go for. Using solar panel comes with so many environmental benefits. They can lower and bring down your carbon footprint.

The last benefit of using solar panels is that they create and give energy independence. You reduce and lower your dependence on the rest of the energy sources and become dependent on solar energy. This energy source will never run short off.

There may come a time when we are going to inevitably run out of and get short of oil, coal or natural gas. So, it is recommended to instead of going for increasingly expensive kinds of energy sources, one can use this budget-friendly source.

Frequently Asked Questions:

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What is the best solar company?

It is seen that LG, Panasonic, and also Sun Power brand manufacture top-class and premium quality solar panels. They offer a satisfaction guarantee time. Moreover, their designed and manufactured solar panels offer high efficiencies.

They are packed with competitive pricing and give around and about 25-year warranty time. The best and reliable companies, their designed solar panels run on fast charging mode.

They get to automatically set and adjust themselves to the current range and the voltage range for the sake of achieving maximum and the greatest power. In addition, these companies designed solar-powered panels, they are highly compact and portable.

They can be folded easily and ideal for situations like camping, fishing or hiking, emergencies. Lastly, high-quality solar panels deliver ultimate compatibility and super efficiency.

Their offered solar conversion rate is 22% to 25%. So, whenever you plan out to buy a solar panel for commercial and residential needs, then you can consider keeping in mind these companies.

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How is solar energy made?

The process of generating solar energy, it is simple and straight-forward. As you can see that the photons are usually and generally radiated right from the sun to earth.

These radiations should be collected and thus they are converted into some kind of usable format. This energy is then delivered and shifted to electronic devices of yours or to your electric grid.

Furthermore, it is these Arrays of photovoltaic cells that are utilized for the sake of collecting and gathering energy from the sun and then gradually converting it into electricity.

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How does solar energy affect humans?

It is a positive manner that solar energy affects humans. Just because of this energy, you can easily heal your health issues. Most importantly, energy coming from the sun reduces any of your respiratory problems.

It reduces and brings down the scale of nitrous oxides, sulfur dioxide as well as particulate matter emissions. All of these emissions cause and bring a major amount of health problems that are deteriorating your life.

Moreover, this solar power brings in and arises a few of the cases of chronic bronchitis cases. It reduces any of your problems linked and attached to respiratory and cardiovascular.

All in all, solar energy is lucrative, healthy, and useful for all humans. Take and enjoy the immense benefit of this energy type.

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How much do solar panels cost to own?

If you have a 2000 square foot house, then the cost of your chosen solar panel is going to be around and about $ 40,000. It is observed that a large number of homeowners, they invest between the range of $16,473 and $30,723.

This cost estimation also depends on the factor of the kind of solar panel type you are going for. If you have a 2500 square foot house, then the cost of buying a solar panel will be around $18,000-$20,000. This is an average cost if you have decided to install and set up a typical kind of residential solar system.


Now, you know how solar panels are made! For more details keep connected with us. It is seen that more and more research is taking place in the area of the solar energy industry.

More of the developments are taking place. We hope to see more premium qualities in solar panels. As the main function of this product is to reduce the electricity cost and to increase efficiency as well.

That is why more efforts are pouring to make durable and highly efficient solar panels. Let us all see how far and competitive this industry will come out to be!